This research was carried out at Naturalis Biodiversity Center and the University of Plymouth with funding from the Leverhulme Trust and the NBC Martin-Fellowship. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 746186.

© 2017 Deborah Wall-Palmer

Atlanta tokiokai Van der Spoel & Troost, 1972

The shell morphology of this species is very similar to Atlanta inclinata. The main identifying characteristic is differences in the subtle arrangement of tubercules on the spire surface.

  • Spire large, globose cone shaped and tilted relative to the plane of coiling. The spire has 5½ whorls.

  • Spire has very subtle ornamentation in the form of numerous, uniform spiral rows of small tubercles. There is also a thin ridge that runs around the outer edge of the whorls. The sutures of the spire are shallow.

  • The soft tissues vary from white, but are often a tan-deep brown.

  • The keel is tall and inserts between the final and penultimate whorls. The keel base is orange-brown.

  • The adult shell grows to 3 mm.

  • In adult forms, the inner walls of the spire are decalcified and separated only by a flexible membrane.

  • Eye type b, operculum type c, radula type II.

 

Similar species:

Further Reading:

 

Richter, G., 1990. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Atlanta (IV). Die Atlanta inclinata-Gruppe (Prosobranchia: Heteropoda). Archiv für Molluskenkunde 119, 259–275.

 

Seapy, R.R. 2011. Atlantidae. In: Tree of life web project. Available at http://tolweb.org/Atlantidae accessed 1 April 2017.

 

Seapy, R.R., Lalli, C.M., Wells, F., 2003. Heteropoda from Western Australian waters., in: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, pp. 513–546.

 

Wall-Palmer, D., Burridge, A.K., Goetze, E., Stokvis, F., Janssen, A.W., Mekkes, L., Moreno-Alcántara, M., Bednaršek, N., Schiøtte, T., Vinther Sørensen, M., Smart, C.W., Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A. Biogeography and genetic diversity of the atlantid heteropods. Progress in Oceanography, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.11.004

Wall-Palmer, D., Metcalfe, B., Leng, M.J., Sloane, H.J., Ganssen, G., Vinayachandran, P.N., Smart, C.W. Vertical distribution and diurnal migration of atlantid heteropods. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 587: 1–15. doi: 10.3354/meps12464.

Wall-Palmer, D., Smart, C.W., Kirby, R., Hart, M.B., Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A., Janssen, A. 2016. A review of the ecology, palaeontology and distribution of atlantid heteropods (Caenogastropoda: Pterotracheoidea: Atlantidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 1-14.